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The fact, therefore, that their scribes preserved edv may be taken as showing that they "faithfully reproduce originals written under conditions long since obsolete." [2] This last example may fittingly introduce us to the field of Syntax, and to Moulton and Howard's invaluable Grammar, where at every turn the evidence of the newly-discovered vernacular documents is called in to decide corresponding usages in the New Testament writings. One or two examples will show how rich and suggestive that evidence is. Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable NEVER FAILING and ALL CONQUERING! The earliest finds in Egypt of which we have knowledge took place in 177S, when some Arabs, digging for their own purposes in the Fayum district, accidentally came upon some fifty rolls in an earthen pot ; but, unable to find purchasers, they destroyed them on account, it is said, of the aromatic smell they gave forth in burning.

Thus, to take the case of the New Testament autographs, which were almost certainly written on separate papyrus rolls, a short Epistle, like the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, would be a roll of about fifteen inches in length with the contents arranged in some five columns, while St. But when space failed, the verso could also be utilized, as shown in a long magical papyrus in the British Museum, in which nineteen columns are written on the recto, and the remaining thirteen on the verso. The papyri are generally classified under the two main heads, literary and non-literary, with the biblical and theological texts occupying a position about mid-way between the two. Their value to the historian and the jurist is apparent on the surface, while with their aid the geographer can reconstruct the map of ancient Egypt with a precision previously impossible. In the papyrus rolls of the British Museum (edited for the trustees by J. The hint, thus thrown out, was unfortunately not followed up at the time, but if the full significance of the papyri for the study of the New Testament was long in being recognized, no one can complain of lack of attention to the subject at the present day. Passing t inanimate things, we find the verb used in a British Museum | P Lond Inv No. 114-5), with reference to public records, and strikingly illustrating the card with which these were sometimes kept— cruvepr| . After being dried in the sun, and scraped with a shell or bone to remove any roughness, a material not unlike our own brown paper was produced. Kenyon, to whom the foregoing figures are also due, has calculated that if the whole New Testament was written out in order on a single roll, the roll would extend to more than two hundred feet in length, obviously an utterly unworkable size. So complete was the forgiveness which Christ by His work secured, that it completely cancelled the old bond, that had hitherto been valid against us, for it bore our signature (xeipoypacpov). A certain number, more particularly those of a literary character, have been recovered from their original owners' tombs. Other noteworthy collections come to us from the British Museum, Berlin, Florence, and various other sources, and the general result is that there are now available about ten thousand published documents, and that these are being constantly added to. [4] Egypt Exploration Fund : Archaeological Report, 1896-97, p. See further an article by the present writer on " The Greek Papyri and the New Testament " in The History of Christianity in the Light of Modern Knoivledge (Blackie and Son, 1929), p. [5] A list of the principal papyrus collections will be found under Abbreviations II. Of a much more general character, but interesting from its early date, is Dr. "You are not to suppose that the word [some New Testament word which had its only classical authority in Herodotus] had fallen out of use in the interval, only that it had not been used in the books which remain to us: probably it had been part of the common speech all along. 8iac|8apc-'v Ta, d [Si] Kal air[o] Lupous Sie^Sip Sja Ji, ivia Si Kecpa XSPpo Ta ycyo Wvai Sid to toiis t[o]ttous Kavcrio Sis t-tvai : see H. [1] The size of the papyrus sheets varied considerably, but for non-literary documents a common size was from nine to eleven inches in height, and from five to five and a half inches in breadth. [2] This alone makes it clear that not until the papyrus stage in their history was past, and use was made of both sides of parchment or vellum leaves, was it possible to include all the books of the New Testament in a single volume. The Persae of Timotheos, for example, the oldest Greek literary manuscript in existence, dating, as it does, from the fourth century B. 5 Whether the still unedited papyri have any great surprises in store for us it is vain even to conjecture. XI and so forth, along with a number of private letters touching upon all sides of family and everyday life. John Lightfoot's comment on the Preface to the Lord's Prayer in Mt 6 9 , in his Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, first published as far back as 1658: "In interpreting very many phrases and histories of the New Testament, it is not so much worth, what we think of them from notions of our own, feigned upon I know not what grounds, as in ." [2] I owe the reference to a note by W. I will go further, and say that if we could only recover letters that ordinary people wrote to each other without any thought of being literary, we should have the greatest possible help for the understanding of the language of the New Testament generally." [1] The significance of this quotation is unmistakable, and it is followed, twenty-one years later, by what is, so far as I know, the first definite mention in this country of the papyri in connexion with New Testament study. First came a series of joint articles in the Expositor during 1908 to 1911 dealing with certain representative words. The contents are of little general interest, being merely an account of the forced labours of the peasants on the Nile embankment at Arsinoe in the year A. 191-2, but the papyrus will always have the significance of being the first Greek papyrus to be published in Europe.[1] In the year 1820 further finds, dating from the second century B. lo-Top T|cras t8av- pao-a : this in Heb I 4 , S 6 is expressed by the comparative Siacpopu Tepos. In 1914 we found it possible to publish the First Part of the Vocabulary : Part II followed in the next year. Moulton's tragic death, Though I have done my utmost to utilize any notes or references that he left behind him. Moulton's Greek scholarship are too well known to require acknowledgment here, but I may be allowed to record my own deep sense of personal loss in the removal at the height of his powers of one who was always the truest of friends and the most loyal of colleagues. C., were made in the neighbourhood of Memphis and Thebes, but it was not until 18S9-90 that a beginning was made in systematic exploration, when at Gurob Professor Flinders Petrie extracted a large number of papyri from Ptolemaic mummy-cases, and brought them home to England. Hence, as in the verb, the derived sense of "superiority," as Preisi^ke 1005 Siacpdpous irpd^€LS .

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So far from the Greek of the New Testament being a language by itself, or even, as one German scholar called it, " a language of the Holy Ghost," [2] its main feature was that:[1] Cf. [1] An interesting form, which may cause trouble, if it is not watched, is the substitution of edv for av after 6's, oirov, etc., which the same editors have faithfully reproduced from the leading manuscripts in such passages as Mat ?